||In accordance with the Curriculum Council Act, 1997, the
Curriculum Framework sets out “...the knowledge, understandings, skills,
values and attitudes that students are expected to acquire”. The
Curriculum Framework describes these requirements as a series of learning
outcomes set out in the Overarching and eight Learning Area Statements.
These learning outcomes comprise the mandatory element of the
Curriculum Framework which ALL schools in Western Australia must
on this page is derived
Detailed information about any aspect can be found on their
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
The Curriculum Framework sets out
what all students should know, understand, value and be able to do as a
result of the programs they undertake in schools in Western Australia,
from kindergarten through to year 12. Its fundamental purpose is to
provide a structure around which schools can build educational programs
that ensure students achieve agreed outcomes.
It is neither a curriculum nor a
syllabus, but a framework identifying common learning outcomes for all
students, whether they attend government or non-government schools or
receive home schooling. It is intended to give schools and teachers
flexibility and ownership over curriculum in a dynamic and
rapidly-changing world environment.
AN OUTCOMES FOCUS
The Curriculum Framework makes explicit the
learning outcomes which all Western Australian students should achieve.
This focus on outcomes represents a major shift in school curriculum from
a focus on educational inputs and time allocation toward one that
emphasises the desired results of schooling.
The Curriculum Framework establishes learning
outcomes for all students, regardless of who they are, which school they
attend, where they are from, or what approach their school takes to help
them achieve those outcomes. These learning outcomes are set out in this
document within the Overarching and eight Learning Area Statements.
Schools and teachers will use the Curriculum
Framework to develop their own learning and teaching programs according to
their circumstance, ethos and the needs of their students.
THE K-12 APPROACH
An important feature of the Curriculum Framework
is its kindergarten to year 12 approach. While particular stages of
schooling make unique contributions and may require different approaches,
the K-12 approach adopted by the Framework provides a picture of the total
span of students’ schooling. It encourages a developmental and integrated
approach to curriculum planning, teaching and learning. It enables students
to progress smoothly through their education and avoids the major
disjunctions between stages of schooling evident in some previous approaches
to curriculum. It provides the basis for continuity and consistency in
THE CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
IS FOR ALL STUDENTS
The Curriculum Framework is an inclusive framework for all students in
Western Australia. Inclusivity means ensuring that all groups of students
are included and valued.
The Curriculum Framework does this by:
- specifying a wide and empowering set of
outcomes for students to achieve;
- providing a basis for programs that challenge all students and offer
all groups of students opportunities to achieve these outcomes;
- recognising and valuing the different knowledge and experience of
different groups of students; and
- taking into account the diversity among children and young adults in
this State: for example, in terms of gender, languages, culture,
learning capacity, socioeconomic background and geographic location.
A small number of students with specific physical or intellectual
disabilities may not be able to participate fully in activities and
programs designed to achieve certain outcomes set out in the Curriculum
The development of knowledge, skills and values
is a lifelong process, and occurs in many places besides school. The
Overarching Statement describes the outcomes which all students need to
attain in order to become lifelong learners, achieve their potential in
their personal and working lives and play an active part in civic and
economic life. These outcomes apply across all learning areas and are the
responsibility of all teachers. They are:
- Students use language to understand, develop
and communicate ideas and information and interact with others.
- Students select, integrate and apply
numerical and spatial concepts and techniques.
- Students recognise when and what information
is needed, locate and obtain it from a range of sources and evaluate, use
and share it with others.
- Students select, use and adapt technologies.
- Students describe and reason about patterns,
structures and relationships in order to understand, interpret, justify
and make predictions.
- Students visualise consequences, think
laterally, recognise opportunity and potential and are prepared to test
- Students understand and appreciate the
physical, biological and technological world and have the knowledge and
skills to make decisions in relation to it.
- Students understand their cultural,
geographic and historical contexts and have the knowledge, skills and
values necessary for active participation in life in Australia.
- Students interact with people and cultures
other than their own and are equipped to contribute to the global
- Students participate in creative activity of
their own and understand and engage with the artistic, cultural and
intellectual work of others.
- Students value and implement practices that
promote personal growth and well-being.
- Students are self-motivated and confident in
their approach to learning and are able to work individually and
- Student recognise that everyone has the right
to feel valued and be safe, and, in this regard, understand their rights
and obligations and behave responsibly.
VALUES IN THE CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
Values are fundamental to shaping curriculum.
In recognition of this, the Curriculum Council has identified and endorsed
as one of its Principles, a set of core shared values to underpin the
The Overarching Statement provides an overview of the five clusters of
core shared values while the expanded set of thirty-two values is listed
below. Each of the eight Learning Area
Statements explicitly or implicitly endorses these values in a manner
suited to the area.
|VALUES VALUES VALUES VALUES VALUES
||The lifelong disposition toward the quest
for knowledge, as each person strives to understand the
social and natural worlds and how best to make a
contribution to these worlds. Each person is encouraged to
achieve his or her potential in all respects and, through
critical and creative thinking, to develop a broad
understanding of his or her own values and world views.
||The pursuit of personal excellence:
Each person should be encouraged to achieve his or her
personal best in all undertakings and to respect the
achievements of others.
||Domains of human experience: Each
person should be encouraged to develop an understanding of
all the domains of human experience; physical, emotional,
intellectual, aesthetic, social, moral and spiritual.
||Empowerment: Each person should be
encouraged to develop critical thinking, the creative
imagination, interpersonal and vocational skills, and
basic competencies in the various forms of disciplined
||Knowledge: Each person should
recognise the tentative and limited nature of knowledge.
||Values systems: Each person should
have the opportunity to explore different values and the
right to develop a personal value system.
||Critical reflection: Each person
should be encouraged to reflect critically on both the
cultural heritage and the attitudes and values underlying
current social trends and institutions.
||World views: Each person should be
equipped with the tools to critically examine world-views
(both religious and non-religious), especially those
dominant in his or her background and school community.
||The acceptance and respect of self,
resulting in attitudes and actions that develop each
person’s unique potential — physical, emotional,
aesthetic, spiritual, intellectual, moral and social.
Encouragement is given to developing initiative,
responsibility, ethical discernment, openness to learning
and a sense of personal meaning and identity.
||Individual uniqueness: Each person
should acknowledge his or her own uniqueness and be
encouraged to develop self-respect and dignity.
||Personal meaning: Each person
should develop a sense of personal meaning and identity,
and be encouraged to reflect critically on the ways in
which that occurs.
||Ethical behaviour and responsibility:
Each person has freedom of will, is responsible for his or
her own conduct and should be encouraged to develop
discernment on ethical issues and to recognise the need
for truthfulness and integrity.
||Openness to learning: Each person
should welcome opportunities for learning from all
sources, including the formal study of the learned
disciplines; from investigations, contemplation and the
cultural tradition; and from people of divergent views.
||Initiative and enterprise: Each person
should have the confidence to show initiative and be
enterprising in his or her approach to life’s
||Sensitivity to and concern for the
well-being of other people; and respect for life and
property. Encouragement is given to each person to be
caring and compassionate, to be respectful of the rights
of others, and to find constructive ways of managing
conflict. This includes the right to learn in a friendly
and non-coercive environment.
||Compassion and care: Each person
has a right to receive care and compassion and have a life
of dignity, free from harassment and discrimination.
||Equality: Each person has equal
worth and basic rights, regardless of differences in race,
gender, age, ability, religious belief, political
affiliation, national origin, citizenship, regional
||Respect: Each person should
respect those of different opinion, temperament or
||Open learning environment: Each
person has the right to a friendly learning environment
free of coercive or indoctrinative elements, whether in
the explicit or implicit curriculum.
||Individual differences: Each
person differs in his or her readiness and ability to
learn and has the right to be given access to available
knowledge at a level appropriate to his or her
developmental needs and interests.
Each person should strive to work cooperatively and to
resolve conflict peacefully while respecting differences
and valuing the other person.
||Family/home environment: Each
person should recognise the importance of a secure and
caring family/home environment.
||The commitment to exploring and promoting
the common good and meeting individual needs without
infringing the basic rights of others. This includes the
encouragement of each person to participate in democratic
processes, to value diversity of cultural expression, to
respect legitimate authority, to promote social justice
and to support the use of research for the improvement of
the quality of life.
||Participation and citizenship: As
a democratic society, Australia should encourage its
members to participate in the political process and to
contribute to community services consistent with good
cooperation and social responsibility are encouraged.
||Diversity: The richness of many
cultural expressions is recognised, and diversity in the
context of shared community life is welcome.
||Contribution: Society has
something to gain from every individual life, and should
maximise the opportunities for all persons to contribute
to the common good.
||Authority: People should respect
legitimate and just authority structures and the rule of
the law, while recognising and observing human rights.
||Reconciliation: Strategies of
cooperation and reconciliation are preferred to coercion
and confrontation, especially where groups or individuals
are in conflict.
||Social justice: The right of each
person to a fair share of society’s economic and
cultural resources is recognised.
||Responsibility and freedom: People
have the right to choose their way of life, and are
responsible for the impact of their choices on nature and
other community members.
||Benefits of research: Society
should support the advancement of knowledge in all its
domains, promote scholarship and research that promise to
improve the quality of life and share the benefits as
widely as possible.
||The commitment to developing an
appreciative awareness of the interdependence of all
elements of the environment, including humans and human
systems, and encouraging a respect and concern for
Australia’s natural and cultural heritage and for forms
of resource use that are regenerative and sustainable.
||Cultural heritage: The cultural
heritage of Australia, including Aboriginal sacred and
archaeological cultural heritage, should be respected and
||Conservation of the environment:
The management of the environment should take into account
the need to preserve its diversity and balance for the
||Sustainable development: There is
a need to continue to develop natural resources to sustain
human life. This should be done in a way consistent with
long-term ecological sustainability and rehabilitation
||Diversity of species: Each person
should recognise a need to preserve native habitats and
arrest the extinction of presently-surviving native
LEARNING AND TEACHING
The following principles about learning and
teaching are based on what we value and our beliefs about the learning
environment schools should provide and contemporary research and
professional knowledge about how learning can be supported. As such, they
lead school and classroom practices which are effective in helping
students to achieve the outcomes in the Curriculum Framework. These
- Opportunity to learn
- Connection and challenge
- Action and reflection
- Motivation and purpose
- Inclusivity and difference
- Independence and collaboration
- Supportive environment
A primary purpose of assessment is to enhance
learning. Another purpose is to enable the reporting of students’
achievement. Assessment practices have a powerful impact on learning and
teaching and we have addressed the issues of what evidence to collect, how
to collect it and how to interpret it. Developing a shared understanding
of the outcomes enhances the validity and consistency of judgements about
students’ learning. In turn, this improves learning and teaching by
improving the quality of information upon which teachers and students act.
Teachers are then able to report more credibly to other teachers,
parents and the wider community.
Whether at the level of the classroom, school or
system, assessment information should enable judgements to be made about
students’ progress towards the desired outcomes in a way that is fair and
contributes to continued learning. Thus, assessment information should
enable teachers and students to know what students can do assisted and what
they can do unassisted and what they can do when working in groups and when
working alone. It should enable them to distinguish between work that is
original and non-routine and work that is reproductive or memorised. Fair
assessment is based on criteria which are valid and transparent and applied
with consistency and without discrimination. These in turn require an
assessment regime based upon multiple kinds and sources of evidence.
Assessment is likely to enhance learning when the criteria are valid and
explicit and when the assessment activities are themselves educative.
The Scope of the
PHASES OF DEVELOPMENT
This is the concept of the maturing child
achieving the outcomes. It focuses on the ways that learning might progress
at four overlapping phases of development. While not intended to be
prescriptive, it gives some guidance about the typical sorts of curriculum
experiences students might need at each phase to best achieve the outcomes.
It is recognised that each student is developing and achieving in different
ways, at different stages and at different rates. The Learning Area
Statements build on this section in relation to the outcomes and content
specific to each area.
- EARLY CHILDHOOD (typically kindergarten to
- MIDDLE CHILDHOOD (typically years 3 to 7)
- EARLY ADOLESCENCE (typically years 7 to 10)
- LATE ADOLESCENCE/EARLY ADULTHOOD (typically
years 10 to 12)
The eight learning areas below include a
detailed statement of how each is linked to each of the above aspects of
the overall Curriculum Framework. Each of these is in PDF format.